NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World

The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World, delves into the formation of our interconnected world, which has a rich history of trade, migration, people seeking employment, and the movement of capital. Globalization, an economic system characterized by the free flow of goods, technology, ideas, and people across the globe, is explored in this chapter. To grasp the intricacies of topics like silk routes and the role of technology in globalization, students can rely on the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 as a valuable resource.

These NCERT Solutions serve as a comprehensive guide, aiding students in gaining a deeper comprehension of the chapter’s concepts. By referring to these solutions, students can clarify any doubts they may have, as the content is presented in a straightforward manner. Utilizing these NCERT Solutions will equip students with the necessary knowledge and writing skills to excel in CBSE exams, enabling them to produce high-scoring answers.

Write in brief

1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.


a) The Silk Route (Asia): The Silk Route is a great example of trade and connections between faraway places with different cultures. Its name, “Silk Route,” highlights the significance of Chinese silk being transported toward the West along this route.

Trade and cultural exchange have always been closely linked. Early Christian missionaries most likely traveled this route to Asia, and a few centuries later, early Muslim preachers did the same.

b) Food from the Americas: The food we commonly eat today, such as potatoes, soybeans, peanuts, corn, tomatoes, chili peppers, and sweet potatoes, were unknown to our ancestors until Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the Americas.

These food items only became known in Europe and the rest of the world after the remarkable discovery of the new continent.

2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.

Ans. The spread of diseases across the world before modern times played a role in the colonization of the Americas. This occurred because the Native Americans lacked immunity to the diseases brought by European settlers. Europeans, having been exposed to these diseases for many years, had developed some level of immunity, particularly to diseases like smallpox. In contrast, the Native Americans had no natural defenses against these diseases, as they had been isolated from the illnesses native to the old world.

At times, settlers intentionally engaged in biological warfare by offering items contaminated with smallpox germs as “friendly gifts” to the natives. This disease proved devastating in wiping out entire tribes and communities without the need for firearms.

3. Write a note to explain the effects of the following:

a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
b) The coming of Rinderpest to Africa.
c) The death of men of working age in Europe because of the World War.
d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.


a) The British government decided to abolish the Corn Laws due to pressure from landed groups who were unhappy with the high food prices and the influx of cheap agricultural products from Australia and America. This led to many English farmers leaving their profession and migrating to towns and cities, and some even went overseas. As a result, global agriculture expanded, and rapid urbanization became a prerequisite for industrial growth.

b) Rinderpest, a highly contagious cattle disease, arrived in Africa in the late 1880s. It had devastating consequences on people’s livelihoods and the local economy. Originating in East Africa, it quickly spread to other parts of the continent. Within five years, it reached the Cape of Good Hope, where it wiped out 90% of the cattle population. The disease spread through infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed Italian soldiers invading East Africa. Colonizing nations took advantage of the situation by monopolizing scarce cattle resources, thereby forcing Africans into the labor market. The loss of their livelihoods due to Rinderpest compelled Africans to work for wages.

c) The First World War marked the advent of modern industrial warfare, involving the extensive use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, and more. To fight such a war, millions of soldiers were recruited from around the world and transported to the frontlines via large ships and trains. The scale of death and destruction was unprecedented. The majority of casualties were working-age men, leading to a drastic reduction in the able-bodied workforce in Europe. With fewer family members, household incomes declined after the war, prompting women to step in and take up jobs previously done by men. This shift increased the role of women and fueled demands for equal status in society, strengthening the feminist movement.

d) In the nineteenth century, colonial India became an exporter of agricultural goods and an importer of manufactured products. The impact of the Great Depression on India was significant, particularly in the agricultural sector. It became evident that the Indian economy was increasingly integrated into the global economy. Being a British colony, India exported agricultural goods and imported manufactured goods. As international prices plummeted, prices in India also crashed. For instance, wheat prices in India fell by 50% between 1928 and 1934.

e) Asian countries like China had relatively low wages, making them attractive destinations for investment by foreign multinational corporations (MNCs) aiming to dominate global markets. The relocation of industries to these low-wage countries stimulated world trade and increased capital flow. The impact of MNCs’ decision to shift production to Asian countries included providing a cheap labor source for MNCs, boosting world trade, increasing capital inflow into Asian countries, and offering the local population a greater variety of goods and services, along with increased employment opportunities.

4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.

Ans. 1. Improved transportation systems: The advancement of transportation systems played a crucial role in ensuring the timely and safe delivery of food items to markets. Faster railways, lighter wagons, and larger ships made it possible to transport food from distant farms to final markets quickly and at a lower cost.

2. Refrigerated ships: The invention of refrigerated ships revolutionized the transportation of perishable foods over long distances. Animals were slaughtered for food at the source, such as America, Australia, or New Zealand, and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This innovation reduced shipping expenses and resulted in lower meat prices in Europe. As a result, even the less affluent Europeans could afford to include meat in their diet, which was previously limited to bread and potatoes.

5. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?

Ans. To ensure economic stability and maintain full employment in the post-war industrial world, the international economic system was established. The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA, played a crucial role in implementing this system. During the conference, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) was created to address external surpluses and shortages in member nations. Additionally, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, commonly known as the World Bank, was established to support post-war financial reconstruction, commencing its operations in 1947.

Under this agreement, currencies were fixed to the value of gold, with the US dollar serving as a reserve currency linked to gold. The decision-making authority was primarily vested in the Western industrial powers, with the US possessing the power of veto over key decisions made by the IMF and World Bank. The Bretton Woods System operated on the basis of fixed exchange rates. This system ushered in a period of significant growth in trade and income for Western industrial nations and Japan.


6. Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.


Dear Ma and Pa,

Life as an indentured laborer in Jamaica has proven to be incredibly challenging. I want to share my experiences with you through this letter.

When I was hired by the contractor, he was not entirely truthful about the living and working conditions. The reality of the work and the place of work is far from what was promised.

Our rights as laborers are severely limited, and the contractor’s treatment of us is reminiscent of the harsh standards prevalent in the Caribbean. We are often treated like animals, being a minority and therefore easy targets for the contractor’s anger. Accidents are unfortunately common in the sugar plantations here in Jamaica. I witnessed a horrifying incident where a worker was burned alive when boiling liquid sugar accidentally spilled on him. As a result of his severe burns, he was deemed unable to work and was callously dismissed without receiving his rightful wages. We have no voice or means to express our discontent with the working conditions. Speaking out would only lead to the overseer’s cruel punishments.

If I fail to attend work, I risk being thrown into jail. The workload on the plantations is immense, leaving very little time to complete it all.

In cases where my work is deemed unsatisfactory, my wages are unfairly reduced. This situation feels like hell on earth. However, I want to assure you that there is hope on the horizon. There are discussions of new laws being developed to protect laborers like us. With these changes, our current situation will hopefully improve soon.

Please take comfort in knowing that I am holding on and looking forward to better days ahead. I understand that my words may cause you distress, but I want to assure you that efforts are being made to bring about positive change for workers like us. Until then, I send you my love and hope for a brighter future.

7. Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.

Ans. The three types of movements or flows within the international economic exchange are trade flows, human capital flows, and capital flows or investments. These can be explained as the trade in agricultural products, migration of labor, and financial loans to and from other nations.

1. The flow of trade (trade in goods, e.g. cloth or wheat)
India was a hub of trade in the pre-modern world, and it exported textiles and spices in return for gold and silver from Europe.

Fine cotton was produced in India and was exported to Europe. With industrialization, British cotton manufacturing began to expand, and industrialists pressurised the government to restrict cotton imports and protect local industries. As a result of the tariffs that were imposed on cloth imports, the inflow of fine Indian Cotton began to decline.

2. The flow of labor (the migration of people in search of employment)
In the field of labor, indentured labor was provided for mines, plantations, and factories abroad, in huge numbers, in the nineteenth century. This was an instrument of colonial domination by the British. Indentured laborers were hired under contacts who promised return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation. The living conditions were harsh, and the laborers had little protection from the law or from it as they had few rights.

3. The movement of capital (investments)
Britain took generous loans from the USA to finance the World War. Since India was an English colony, the impact of these loan debts was felt in India too. Food and other crops for the world market required capital. Large plantations could borrow it from banks and markets.

8. Explain the causes of the Great Depression.

Ans. The Great Depression was influenced by several factors, including:

1. Overproduction in agriculture: The problem of overproduction in agriculture resulted in a decline in agricultural prices. As prices fell, farmers’ incomes also decreased. This surplus of goods flooded the market, leading to further price drops. Unfortunately, the lack of buyers caused farm produce to spoil, exacerbating the situation.

2. Economic prosperity and speculation: The prosperity experienced in the United States during the 1920s created a cycle of increased employment and income. This, in turn, fueled higher consumption and demand. The growing optimism led to increased investment and speculation. However, this speculative behavior eventually led to the stock market crash in 1929, causing panic among investors and depositors. Consequently, investment and deposits declined, initiating a cycle of economic decline.

3. Withdrawal of US loans: The withdrawal of loans from the United States had far-reaching effects on the global economy. In Europe, this withdrawal resulted in the failure of major banks and the collapse of currencies like the British pound sterling. Some banks were unable to sustain operations as people withdrew their assets, leaving them unable to make investments. Additionally, certain banks recalled loans at the original dollar rate, disregarding the falling value of the dollar.

These factors, among others, contributed to the Great Depression, which lasted from 1929 to the mid-1930s.

9. Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?

Ans. Following the conclusion of the Second World War, many regions across the world remained under European colonial rule. It took more than two decades for colonies in Asia and Africa to gain their independence and become sovereign nations. However, upon gaining independence, these nations encountered numerous challenges, including poverty and resource scarcity. Having endured prolonged periods of colonial rule, their economies and societies were significantly handicapped.

As colonies, these less developed regions had been part of Western empires, with the policies of institutions like the Bretton Woods twins favoring the developed nations of the Western world. Paradoxically, after attaining independence and facing urgent pressures to uplift their populations from poverty, these newly independent countries found themselves guided by international agencies largely influenced by their former colonial powers.

In response, these colonies formed a collective group known as the Group of 77 (G-77). Their primary objective was to advocate for a new international economic order (NIEO). By advocating for the NIEO, they aimed to establish a system that would grant them genuine control over their natural resources, increased development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and improved access to developed countries’ markets for their manufactured goods.

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