NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

Question 1.
In this chapter, you have read that health is a wider concept than illness. Look at this quote from the Constitution and explain the terms ‘living standard’ and ‘public health’ in your own words.
An important part of the Constitution says It is the “duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.”

  1. Living standard:
    • The amount of money and level of comfort available to. a person or community is called living standard.
    • It refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to the people.
    • It is generally measured in terms of real income per person. Examples are access to certain goods like the number of refrigerators per 1000 people and services likes proper healthcare.
  2. Public health:
    • Public health means a programme to promote, maintain, and conserve the health of the common people by providing health services to individuals and the community.
    • It includes observation and control of infectious diseases and promotion of healthy behaviours among the members of the community.

Question 2.
What are the different ways through which the government can take steps to provide healthcare for all? Discuss.
The government can take steps to provide healthcare for all by taking the following steps:



  1. The government can manage money for the total healthcare of the people by cutting the budget amount allocated for the defense, and security of the VIPs.
  2. The budget allocation for the health services can be raised.
  3. At least 30 to 40 percenter health budget should be given to local self-government, i.e., Panchayats and Municipalities.
  4. The government should provide safe drinking water, sanitation, nutrition, and housing along with health education to the general public.

Question 3.
What differences do you find between private and public health services in your area? Use the following table to compare and contrast these.
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health 1

Facility Cost of services Availability of service
Private High, very high Available only on high cost/and too few
Public Free or at very low cost Easily available but poorly maintained.

Question 4.
‘Improvement in water and sanitation can control many diseases’. Explain with the help of examples.

Water Sanitation
1. Several diseases are water-borne because water is mostly contaminated. 1. Several diseases are caused due to poor sanitary conditions.
2. Improvement can be brought in water by treating raw water, using Acquaguard, purifier, and R.O. 2. The diseases include malaria, plague, fever, etc.
3. The water-borne diseases are loose motion, diarrhea, malaria, dysentery, cholera, jaundice, chikungunya. 3. Improvement in sanitation will check these diseases.
4. They can be checked by the improvement of water quality.


Question 1.
Would you associate all or some of these pictures (images on pages 18-19) with ‘health’ In what ways? Discuss in groups. (NCERT Page 19)
All these pictures are associated with health. These pictures relate to

  1. Sanitary conditions
  2. Availability of clean drinking water
  3. Health centers
  4. Hospital services

Groups can be made and each situation can be discussed.

Question 2.
Pick two situations from the above collage that are not related to illness and write two sentences on how they are related to health. (NCERT Page 19)
Picture of the queue of utensils for water collection and of hair cutting.
Availability of pure drinking and properly sanitized instruments for hair cutting is must to prevent illness and stay healthy.



Question 3.
Can you provide a title to the two columns? (NCERT Page 20)
The title can be:

  • Advancement in health care
  • The health situation in India

Question 4.
In India, it is often said that we are unable to provide health services for all because the government does not have enough money and facilities. After reading the above columns do you think this is true? Discuss. (NCERT Page 20)
There are many developments like:

  1. The largest number of medical colleges in the world.
  2. Approximately 15,000 new doctors every year.
  3. About 18,218 hospitals by the year 2000.
  4. Extension of medical tourism due to the low cost of treatments.
  5. The fourth-largest producer of medicines.

The following are some of the drawbacks of our healthcare:

  1. Most doctors settle in urban areas, fewer doctors in rural areas.
  2. Two million cases of malaria and five lakh cases of tuberculosis every year.
  3. Water-borne communicable diseases like diarrhea, hepatitis on the rise. About 21% have no access to clean water.
  4. Half of all children are malnourished.
  5. Private health on the rise and the Public health care system has not grown as per the need.

In order to prevent and treat illnesses, we need appropriate healthcare facilities.

  1. They are health centres, hospitals, laboratories for testing, ambulance services, blood banks, etc.
  2. They can provide the required care and services that patients need.
  3. In order to run these facilities, we need health workers, nurses, qualified doctors, and other health professionals who can advise, diagnose, and treat illnesses.

Healthcare Services in India

  1. We also need medicines and equipment that are necessary for treating patients.
  2. India has a large number of doctors, clinics, and hospitals.
  3. It also has considerable experience and knowledge, in running a public healthcare system. This system of hospitals and health centres is run by the government.
  4. It has the ability to look after the health of a large section of its population scattered over lakhs of villages.
  5. There has been a phenomenal improvement in medical sciences with many new technologies and treatment procedures.

Question 5.
The Story of Hakim Sheik
Hakim Sheik was a member of the Paschim Banga Khet Mazdoor Samity (PBKMS), an organisation of agricultural labourers in West Bengal. One evening in 1992, he accidentally fell off a running train and suffered head injuries. He was in a very serious condition and needed immediate treatment.
He was taken to a government hospital in Kolkata but they refused to admit him because they did not have a spare bed. Another hospital did not have the facility or the specialised doctors necessary for his treatment. In this way, he spent 14 hours in a critical state and was taken to eight different government hospitals, but none of them admitted him.



Finally, he was admitted in a private hospital, where he received treatment. He spent a lot of money on his treatment. Angry and upset over the indifferent attitude of all the hospitals that refused to admit him, Hakim Sheik and PBKMS filed a case in court.

Read the story given above. Then imagine that you are a judge in the court. What would you say to Hakim Sheik? (NCERT Page 21)
I would pronounce the judgment with due compensation to Hakim Sheik. I would also heavily fine the delinquent hospitals as a deterrent punishment for dereliction of duty.

Question 6.
Why did Ranjan have to spend so much money? Give reasons. (NCERT Page 24)
Ranjan had to spend so much money because of the following reasons:

  1. He took treatment at a private nursing home.
  2. He had to purchase medicines from the open market.
  3. He spent money on consultation, tests, etc.

Question 7.
What problems did Aman face in the public hospital? How do you think the hospital can work in a better manner? Discuss. (NCERT Page 24)
Problems faced by Aman

  1. Non-availability of doctors.
  2. Junked and non-operational equipment.
  3. Non-availability of medicines.
  4. Crowded.
  5. The indifference of doctors etc.
  6. Proper and strict administration can get the hospital’s work in a better manner.

Question 8.
Where do you go when you are ill? Are there any problems that you face? Write a paragraph based on your experience. (NCERT Page 24)
We generally go to private nursing homes.

  • Non-availability of expert doctors on the spot.
  • The high cost of treatment.
  • No proper guidance and information.

Question 9.
What problems do we face in private hospitals? Discuss. (NCERT Page 24)

  1. Private hospitals are not owned or controlled by the government.
  2. Patients have to- pay a lot of money for every service.
  3. Sometimes incorrect practices are encouraged where patients undergo unnecessary treatments or tests.

Question 10.
Why should we pay taxes to the government? (NCERT Page 24)
The tax money paid to the government is used for providing public services for all citizens.

  1. Services like defense, police judiciary, highways, etc.
  2. Developmental programmes like education, health care employment, social welfare.
  3. Vocational training for the needy.
  4. Rehabilitation after natural disasters.
  5. Space, nuclear, or missile programmes.
  6. Services to the poor by subsidies on basic amenities.

Question 11.
(a) In what ways is the public health system meant for everyone?
(b) List some Primary Health Centres (PHCs) or hospitals near your place. From your experience (or by visiting any one of them), find out the facilities provided and the people who run the center. (NCERT Page 25)
(a) Public health system is meant for everyone in the following ways:

  1. Numerous hospitals, primary health centres, dispensaries, family welfare centres.
  2. No fee charged.
  3. No restrictions on anyone.
  4. Free supply of medicine.

(b) As in (a) above to be done with help of the Teacher.

Question 12.
Private health facilities can mean many things. Explain with the help of some examples from your area. (NCERT Page 26)
Private Health Services:

  1. A wide range of private health facilities exists in our country.
  2. Countless doctors run their own private clinics.
  3. In rural areas, one finds Registered Medical Practitioners (RMP).
  4. Urban areas have a large number of doctors, many of them provide specialised services.
  5. There are hospitals and nursing homes that are privately owned.
  6. There are many laboratories that do tests and offer special facilities like X-ray, ultrasound, etc.
  7. There are also medicines for selling shops. They are called chemist shops or stores.
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