NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Industries

Below are the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Industries to assist students in their board examinations and excel in their studies. In India, the industrial sector comprises three main economic sectors: the primary sector (which involves extracting raw materials like mining and farming industries), the secondary sector (which includes refining, construction, and manufacturing), and the tertiary sector (focused on services and the distribution of manufactured goods). Industries encompass economic activities related to manufacturing goods, mineral extraction, or service provision.

Our team of subject experts has formulated the answers in a student-friendly language, ensuring easy comprehension of the concepts. Students can conveniently refer to the NCERT Solutions and download the PDF solutions for free through the provided links.

1. Answer the following questions.
(i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’?

Ans. Industry pertains to an economic activity focused on the production of goods, such as the iron and steel industry, as well as the extraction of minerals, like the coal mining industry. Additionally, industry encompasses the provision of services, such as the tourism industry.

(ii) Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?

Ans. The establishment of an industry contributes to the development and progress of a particular location. Various factors influence the choice of industry location, including the availability of raw materials and land, access to water and labor, availability of power and transportation, proximity to markets, and sufficient capital. In some cases, the government may provide incentives such as subsidized power, reduced transportation costs, and other infrastructure facilities to encourage industries to set up in economically disadvantaged areas.

(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?

Ans. Steel is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry due to its widespread usage in various applications. Practically everything we use is either made of steel or has been manufactured using machinery or tools made from steel. The steel industry plays a vital role as a feeder industry, as its products serve as raw materials for numerous other industries.

2. Distinguish between the following.
(i) Agro-based and mineral-based industry

Ans. Agro-based industries rely on plant and animal-based resources as their raw materials. These industries play a significant role in generating employment opportunities for people residing in rural areas. Examples of agro-based industries include food processing, vegetable oil production, cotton textile manufacturing, dairy product processing, and leather industries.

Mineral-based industries are primary sectors that utilize mineral ores as their raw materials. These industries provide employment opportunities for both rural and urban populations. Examples of mineral-based industries include steel and iron industries, as well as heavy machinery industries.

(ii) Public sector and joint sector industry

Ans. Public sector industries refer to those owned and operated by the government. Examples of public sector industries include Steel Authority of India Limited and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Joint sector industries are characterized by ownership and operation shared between the state and individuals or a group of individuals. An example of a joint sector industry is Maruti Udyog Limited.

3. Give two examples of the following in the space provided:
(i) Raw Materials: _____________ and _____________________
(ii) End products: _______________ and _________________________
(iii) Tertiary Activities: ________________ and __________
(iv) Agro-based Industries: ____________ and ____________
(v) Cottage Industries: ___________ and ________________
(vi) Co-operatives: ______________________ and _____________

Ans. (i) Raw Materials: Iron ore and Cotton
(ii) End products: Steel and Cloth
(iii) Tertiary Activities: Transport and banking
(iv) Agro-based Industries: Dairy and Sugar
(v) Cottage Industries: pottery and basket weaving
(vi) Co-operatives: Mother Dairy and Anand Milk Union Limited

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