NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 8 The Making of the National Movement 1870s – 1947

Question 1.
Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?

  1. The Arms Act was passed in 1878, disallowing Indians from possessing arms.
  2. The Vernacular Press Act was enacted in an effort to silence those who were critical of the government.
  3. In 1883, the government attempted to introduce the Ilbert Bill. The bill provided for the trial of British persons by Indians. But when white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill, Indians became enraged.
  4. Many political associations came into existence in the 1879s and 1880s which highlighted the issues.

Question 2.
Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?

  1. The need for an all-India organization of educated Indians had been felt since 1880.
  2. The Ilbert Bill controversy deepened this desire.
  3. The Indian National Congress was established when 72 delegates from all over the country met at Bombay in December 1885 to speak for the people of India to the government.

Question 3.
What economic impact did the First World War have on India?
The First World War had the following economic impact on India:

  1. In order to meet a huge rise in defense expenditure, the government increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits.
  2. Increased military expenditure and the demands for war supplies led to a sharp rise in prices which created great difficulties for the common people.
  3. The war created a demand for industrial goods like jute bags, cloth, rail, etc., and caused a decline of imports from other countries into India.
  4. Indian industries expanded during the war and Indian business groups began to demand greater opportunities for development.
  5. Business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war.

Question 4.
What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?
In 1940 the Muslim League demanded “Independent States” for Muslims in the north-western and eastern areas of the country.
1. The resolution did not mention partition or Pakistan.
2. From the late 1930s, the League began viewing the Muslims as a separate “nation” from the Hindus.
3. Besides, the provincial elections of 1937 convinced the League that Muslims were a minority, and they would always have to play second fiddle in any democratic structure.

  • It feared that the Muslims may even go unrepresented.
  • The Congress rejected the League’s desire to form a joint Congress-League’s government in the United Province (now Uttar Pradesh) in 1937.
  • This also annoyed the League.

Question 5.
Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?
(1) Those Congress leaders were called Moderates who were “moderate” in their objectives and methods.


  • They proposed a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration.
  • They wanted the Legislative Councils to be made more representative, given more power and introduced in provinces that did not exist.
  • They demanded that Indians be placed in high positions in the government.
  • The moderate leaders wanted to develop public awareness about the unjust nature of British rule.
  • They wanted to make the government aware of the feelings of Indians.

Question 6.
How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?
By the 1890s a large number of Indians began to raise questions on the political style of the Congress.

  • In Bengal, Maharashtra and Punjab, leaders like Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Lala Lajpat Rai began to explore more radical objectives and methods. They were popularly called: Lal-Bal-Pal.
  • They criticised the Moderates for their “politics of prayers”.
  • They emphasised the importance of self-reliance and constructive work.
  • They argued that people must rely on their own strength, not on the “good” intentions of the government.
  • They also said that people must fight for
  • Tilak raised the slogan, “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it!”

Question 7.
Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?

  1. In kheda, Gujarat, Patidar peasants organized non-violent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British.
  2. In the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “Forest satyagrahas”.
  3. In coastal Andhra and Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed.
  4. In sind and Bengal, the khilafat non-cooperation alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement.
  5. In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to remove corrupt mahants from their gurudwaras.
  6. In Assam, tea garden labourers demanded a big increase in their wages.

Question 8.
Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?
Gandhiji’s Choice to Break Salt Law

  • In 1930, Gandhiji led a march to break the salt law.
  • According to this law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt.
  • Mahatma Gandhi along with other nationalists reasoned that it was sinful to tax salt since it is such an essential item of our food.

Question 9.
Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.

  1. The Congress’ failure to mobilize the Muslim masses in the 1930s allowed the League to widen its social support.
  2. The League sought to enlarge its support in the early 1940s when most Congress leaders were in jail.
  3. After the Second World War, the British opened negotiations between Congress, the League, and themselves. The talks failed because the League saw itself as the sole spokes-persons of India’s Muslims. Congress did not accept it.
  4. In provincial elections, 1946, the League’s success in the seats reserved for Muslims was spectacular. It persisted with its demand for “Pakistan”.
  5. In March 1946, the British Cabinet mission could not get Congress and the Muslim League to agree to specific details of the proposal.
  6. The League announced 16 August 1946 as “Direct Action Day”. On this day riots broke out in Calcutta and by March 1947, violence spread to different parts of northern India.

Question 10.
Find out how the national movement was organized in your city, district, area or state. Who participated in it and who led it? What did the movement in your area achieve?
(Students to do it as per their area)
Organization of National Movement in our city:

  • Visit of Gandhiji.
  • Formation of Action Committees.
  • Meetings and awareness of different events at the national level.
  • Prabhat Pheries and Rallies.
  • Protest march to district headquarters.
  • Mass arrests.
  • Hanging of the freedom fighters.
  • Award after getting independence.

Question 11.
Find out more about the life and work of any two participants or leaders of the national movement and write a short essay about them. You may choose a person not mentioned in this chapter.
(1) Kunwar Singh: Babu Veer Kunwar Singh (1777-1858) was a zamindar of Jagdishpur near Arrah in the state of Bihar. At the age of 80 years, during India’s First War of Independence (1857-58), he assumed command of the soldiers who had revolted at Danapur on 5 July 1857. Two days later, he occupied Arrah which was relieved by Major Eyre on 3rd August. He recorded victories in many battles. In his last battle which was fought on 23 April 1858 near Jagdishpur, Kunwar Singh had a victory over the force led by Captain Le Grand. On 26 April 1858, he died in his village.

(2) Sarojini Naidu: Sarojini Naidu (February 13, 1879— March 2, 1949), “the Nightingale of India” was a distinguished poet, renowned freedom fighter, and one of the great Orators of her time. In 1898, she got married to Govindarajulu Naidu, a doctor by profession.

She presided over the annual session of the Indian National Congress at Kanpur (1925).
She had a leading role in Salt Satyagraha and consecutive struggles. She was President of the National Women’s Conference for many years and trained many volunteers who took up women’s cause. She was the first woman to be appointed in 1947 as the Governor of the United Province (Presently—Uttar Pradesh).

Objective Type Questions

1. Match the following:
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 11 The Making of the National Movement 1870s - 1947 1

(i)  d
(ii)  c 
(iii) a
(iv) e
(v)  f 
(vi) b

2. State whether True or False:

  1. People were satisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s. False
  2. The Arms Act was passed in 1875. False
  3. O. Hume was a Chinese educationist. False
  4. Muslim League demanded “Independent States” for Muslims in 1940. True
  5. The Congress in the first twenty years of its formation was “moderate”. True
  6. In 1930, Gandhiji led a march to break the salt law. True
  7. The leaders of the Khilafat agitation were Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. True

3. Fill in the blanks:

  1. The Arms Act disallowed Indians from having arms.
  2. Gandhiji and his followers marched from Sabarmati to Dandi.
  3. 16 August 1946 was announced as Direct Action Day by the Muslim League.
  4. C. Rajagopalachari is popularly known as Rajaji.

Multiple Choice Questions

Choose the correct answer:

1. Marathi newspaper ‘Kesari’ was edited by
(a) Lala Lajpat Rai
(b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(c) Chitta Ranjan Das
(d) Sarojini Naidu

2. Lala Lajpat Rai was a nationalist from
(a) Bengal
(b) Bihar
(c) Punjab
(d) Haryana

3. Which of the following movement is associated with Chitta Ranjan Das?
(a) Quit India Movement
(b) The Salt March
(c) Non-Cooperation Movement
(d) None of these

4. The founder of Khudai Khidmatgars was
(a) Mohammad Ali
(b) Shaukat Ali
(c) Badshah Khan
(d) None of these

5. Who established the Natal Congress?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Balgahgadhar Tilak
(d) Lala Lajpat Rai

6. Bengal was divided by the British in the year
(a) 1900
(b) 1910
(c) 1905 
(d) 1920

7. Hindustan Socialist Republic Association was related to the nationalist
(a) Lala Lajpat Rai
(b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(c) Bhagat Singh  
(d) None of these

8. The Vernacular Press Act was enacted in
(a) 1840
(b) 1857
(c) 1878    
(d) 1890

9. Ilbert Bill was introduced in
(a) 1860
(b) 1878
(c) 1883 
(d) 1890

10. Naoroji was……… settled in London.
(a) a businessman and publicist   
(b) an artist
(c) an educationist
(d) none of these

11. Second World War ended in
(a) 1910
(b) 1920
(c) 1945
(d) 1920

12. The fight for Purna Swaraj was fought under the presidentship of
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) C. Rajagopalachari
(d) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

13. Who was the first Indian Governor-General of free India?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) C. Rajagopalachari 
(d) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

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