NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution are specifically designed to meet the requirements of students preparing for their exams. These solutions cover all the necessary points and information needed for exam preparation. The content is presented in a detailed and concise manner, with explanations provided in a pointwise format. The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 offers various types of questions and answers presented in easy language, enabling students to grasp the concepts effectively and face exams with confidence. By utilizing the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Chapter 2, students can enhance their exam performance. Moreover, access to NCERT solutions for subjects like Science, Maths, English, Hindi, and Social Science will make studying easier. By downloading the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution, students can revise the complete syllabus and improve their scores in examinations.

Class 9 is a crucial stage for children as they gain knowledge about different historical events and aspects. In Class 9 History, students are introduced to fundamental concepts that are essential for their understanding of history.

Question 1. What were the social, economic, and political conditions in Russia before 1905?


The social, economic, and political conditions in Russia before 1905 were characterized by inequality, oppression, and stagnation.

Social Conditions: In pre-1905 Russia, the dominant religion was Russian Orthodox Christianity, which evolved from the Greek Orthodox Church. However, the empire encompassed individuals practicing other religions such as Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam, and Buddhism. Non-Russian nationalities faced inequality in comparison to Russian nationalities, as they were not granted the same freedoms to uphold their cultural practices and languages. Within the working class, individuals were categorized based on their skill level and training. Peasants organized themselves into communal groups known as communes or mirs.

Economic conditions: The Russian population was predominantly engaged in agriculture, with grain being the primary export commodity. Industrialization in Russia was limited, with notable industrial centers located in St. Petersburg and Moscow. Craftsmen played a significant role in production, but there were also large-scale factories alongside craft workshops. The expansion of the Russian railway network led to increased foreign investment in factories. The country witnessed substantial coal, iron, and steel production. The number of factory workers was comparable to that of craftsmen. However, workers often faced exploitation at the hands of capitalists, leading to miserable living conditions.

Political Conditions: Russia was governed by a monarchy, with Tsar Nicholas II reigning over a vast empire that encompassed present-day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus, and extended to the Pacific, including Central Asian states, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The Tsars upheld the concept of divine rights, considering themselves accountable only to a higher authority and not to the Parliament. In Russia, all political parties were deemed illegal, and political dissent was met with severe repression.

These conditions created widespread discontent among the Russian people, and they led to a series of revolutions in the early 20th century. The 1905 Revolution was a major turning point in Russian history, and it led to the establishment of a parliament and the introduction of limited civil liberties. However, the revolution was ultimately unsuccessful, and the Tsar retained his absolute power.

Question 2. In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?


Before 1917, the working population in Russia differed from other European countries in several ways. Industrial development in Russia was slower, with a greater reliance on traditional craft workshops. Many Russian workers came from a peasant background, and the influence of agrarian society remained strong among them. The repressive political climate and limited workers’ rights in Russia hindered organization and mobilization compared to more liberal countries. Workers in Russia faced harsh conditions, including long hours, low wages, and poor living conditions, while capitalist employers exploited them.

Question 3. Why did the Tsarist autocracy in Russia collapse in 1917?


The collapse of the Tsarist autocracy in Russia in 1917 can be attributed to several key factors:

World War I: Russia’s participation in World War I had a significant impact on the collapse of the Tsarist regime. The war put enormous strain on the Russian economy and military, resulting in severe food shortages, inflation, and high casualties. The government’s mismanagement of the war effort and the resulting hardships led to widespread discontent among the population.

Socioeconomic Issues: Russia was grappling with deep-rooted socioeconomic issues, including widespread poverty, land inequality, and poor working conditions. The majority of the population, particularly the peasants and industrial workers, faced dire circumstances while the ruling elite enjoyed privileges. This stark socioeconomic divide fueled resentment and unrest.

Political Repression: The Tsarist regime was known for its repressive policies, limiting political freedoms, and suppressing dissent. Censorship, restrictions on civil liberties, and the absence of representative institutions contributed to growing discontent and a desire for political change.

Leadership Crisis: Tsar Nicholas II’s leadership during this critical period was ineffective and out of touch with the needs and aspirations of the Russian people. His decisions and policies, including his handling of the war and failure to address domestic issues, eroded public confidence in the monarchy.

Revolutionary Movements: Revolutionary movements, such as the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin, gained popularity and support among the discontented segments of society. These groups capitalized on the prevailing dissatisfaction, offering promises of political change, social equality, and an end to the war.

The culmination of these factors led to a series of popular uprisings and demonstrations in 1917, including the February Revolution, which eventually resulted in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the collapse of the Tsarist autocracy.

Question 4. Make two lists: one with the main events and effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders, and what the impact of each was on Soviet history.


Main events and effects of the February Revolution:


  • Widespread strikes and demonstrations in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) demanded an end to food shortages, improved working conditions, and political reforms.
  • Mutinies in the Russian army, with soldiers joining the protests and refusing to suppress the uprising.
  • Tsar Nicholas II’s abdication from the throne brought an end to the Romanov dynasty.
  • Formation of the Provisional Government, led initially by moderate liberals and later by socialists, aiming to establish a democratic system.


  • The establishment of a provisional government was marked by political instability and a power vacuum.
  • Increased political freedom and civil liberties, including freedom of speech, press, and assembly.
  • Continued involvement in World War I, which further strained the economy and military resources.
  • Growing influence and popularity of socialist and revolutionary factions, including the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin.

In the February Revolution, a broad coalition of groups participated, including workers, soldiers, and liberal politicians. The Provisional Government was initially led by figures like Prince Lvov and later by socialists like Alexander Kerensky. The impact of the February Revolution was the removal of Tsarist autocracy and the establishment of a provisional government, although it failed to address key issues and faced challenges from various factions.

Main events and effects of the October Revolution:


  • Bolshevik-led uprising in Petrograd, aimed at overthrowing the Provisional Government and establishing a socialist government.
  • Storming of the Winter Palace and seizure of key government institutions by the Bolsheviks.
  • Transfer of power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, dominated by Bolsheviks.
  • Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly, which had been elected earlier but was deemed counter-revolutionary by the Bolsheviks.


  • Formation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), marking the beginning of Bolshevik rule.
  • Implementation of socialist policies, including the nationalization of industries, land redistribution, and the establishment of a planned economy.
  • Withdrawal from World War I, following the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918.
  • Intensification of the Russian Civil War between the Bolsheviks (Red Army) and anti-Bolshevik forces (White Army) lasted until 1922, resulting in significant casualties and destruction.

In the October Revolution, the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, played a central role. The uprising was carried out by the Bolsheviks and their allies, primarily workers, soldiers, and sailors. The October Revolution resulted in the Bolshevik seizure of power, the establishment of a socialist government, and the eventual formation of the Soviet Union. The impact of the October Revolution was profound, as it led to a radical transformation of Soviet society, the implementation of socialist policies, and the eventual consolidation of power by the Bolshevik Party. The revolution also sparked the Russian Civil War, which shaped Soviet history and led to the establishment of a centralized Soviet state.

Question 5. What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?


Following the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks implemented a series of significant changes in Russia. Here are the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the revolution:

Bolshevik Consolidation of Power: The Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, established a one-party rule and dissolved the Constituent Assembly, which had been elected earlier. They aimed to establish a socialist government and consolidate their authority.

Nationalization and Land Reforms: The Bolsheviks implemented policies of nationalization, seizing and bringing major industries, banks, and resources under state control. They also carried out land reforms, redistributing land from wealthy landowners to peasants, fulfilling their promise of “land to the peasants.”

Decree on Peace: The new government issued a Decree on Peace, ending Russia’s participation in World War I. This led to the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918, which resulted in significant territorial losses but allowed the Bolsheviks to focus on consolidating power internally.

Red Army Formation: The Bolsheviks formed the Red Army as a new revolutionary military force. They aimed to defend the socialist government and fight against counter-revolutionary forces during the Russian Civil War.

Worker and Peasant Control: The Bolsheviks implemented policies of worker and peasant control over production, aiming to establish a socialist economy. Factory committees were formed to oversee production decisions, and the land was transferred to peasant communes for collective cultivation.

Abolition of Class Distinctions: The Bolsheviks sought to eliminate class distinctions and establish a classless society. Private property and wealth were confiscated, and measures were taken to ensure equality and social justice.

These immediate changes implemented by the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution set the foundation for the establishment of a socialist state and marked a significant departure from the previous political, economic, and social structures in Russia. However, these policies also led to opposition, fueling the Russian Civil War and shaping the course of Soviet history.

Question 6. Write a few lines to show what you know about:

(a) Kulaks
(b) the Duma
(c) women workers between 1900 and 1930
(d) the Liberals
(e) Stalin’s collectivisation programme


(a) Kulaks

Kulaks were a group of wealthy peasants in Russia who owned more land and livestock than the average peasant. They were often seen as being exploitative and were targeted by the Soviet government during collectivization.

(b) The Duma

The Duma was a parliament that was established in Russia in 1905. It was a bicameral legislature, with a lower house (the State Duma) and an upper house (the State Council). The Duma was dissolved several times by the Tsar, but it was eventually abolished by the Bolsheviks in 1917.

(c) Women workers between 1900 and 1930

Women workers in Russia made up a significant portion of the workforce during this period. They were often employed in low-paying, unskilled jobs, and they faced discrimination in the workplace. However, they also played a significant role in the Russian Revolution and the early years of the Soviet Union.

(d) The Liberals

The Liberals were a political movement in Russia that advocated for constitutional government and individual rights. They were often seen as being too moderate by the Bolsheviks, and they were eventually persecuted by the Soviet government.

(e) Stalin’s collectivisation programme

Stalin’s collectivisation programme was a series of policies implemented in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. The goal of collectivisation was to consolidate small peasant farms into large collective farms. This was done in order to increase agricultural production and to make it easier for the government to control the food supply.

Collectivisation was a very unpopular policy, and it led to widespread famine and the deaths of millions of people. It also led to the Dekulakization, which was the forced deportation of kulaks to labor camps.

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